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Climate Change Mitigation Projects


The United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit and entered into force in March 1995 in attempts to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and prevent dangerous human-induced interference with the climate. The UNFCCC put forward a list of industrialized countries (Annex I) for which domestic/international GHG reduction measures were recommended and developing countries (non-Annex I) which are exempt from immediate emission reduction measures, but may participate on a voluntary basis.

The Kyoto Protocol is an addendum to the UNFCCC that was adopted in December 1997. The Kyoto Protocol represents a potentially binding international treaty that stipulates actions to be taken by countries to combat global climate change. Six specific GHGs are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol: CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, PFCs, and HFCs.

Most Annex I countries have committed to reduce their collective emissions of GHGs by an average of 5.2% by the commitment period of 2008 to 2012, while non-Annex I countries are not subject to emissions reduction caps. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005, 90 days after it was ratified by Russia. The emission reduction targets for 2008 - 2012 (with respect to 1990 levels) taken on by Annex I countries under the Kyoto Protocol are set out below:

  • Switzerland, Central & East European states, European Union: - 8%
  • Canada, Hungary, Japan, Poland : -6%
  • New Zealand, Russia, Ukraine: 0%
  • Norway: +1%
  • Australia: +8%
  • Iceland: +10%



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